The student’s understanding of aeronautical decision-making should be reinforced, bringing it to an instrument-pilot level of knowledge.
- General models
- hazardous attitudes
- Specific applications
- stabilized approach
- pen and paper
- Airplane Flying Handbook chapter 18
- Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge chapter 16
- FAA Advisory Circular AC 60-22 – Aeronautical decision-making
- Evaluate the student’s current level of knowledge
- If low, describe the fundamentals of aeronautical decision-making
- If high, pose scenarios and ask probing questions to find weak areas
- Using the included scenario, gauge overall ability to make decisions
- Get today’s weather and ask if the student would do a stage flight
- Prepare by reading and highlighting Advisory Circular 60-22
- Maintain active involvement by responding to questions and taking notes
- Demonstrate to the instructor a reasonable level of ADM ability by working on scenarios
The lesson will be complete when the student can demonstrate a high level understanding of aeronautical decision-making, especially the PAVE, IMSAFE, and DECIDE models. This ability will be evaluated through scenarios and guided discussion.
- ADM originated with the airlines
- Designed to improve our safety and control risk
- Consider creating outlines of personal minimums
- PAVE model is great for this
PAVE is a system of risk management, and should be considered prior to the flight
- External pressures
The IMSAFE checklist applies to both the pilot and external pressures considerations.
- Emotion or Eating
DECIDE is a model for the decision-making process and will probably loop back on itself several times during a given flight or situation.
- Detect that a change has occurred
- Estimate the need to counter or react to the change
- Choose a desirable outcome resulting in the success of the flight
- Identify actions which could control or affect the change
- Do the necessary action
- Evaluate the effect of the action
How do we cope with the following?
Stabilized approach: FLAPS✔
Checklist should be verified by 200’ AGL.
- Flight path – lateral guidance within ¾ CDI or at runway centerline
- Landing configuration – flap setting and complex items (gear, prop)
- Approach speed
- Power setting – should be normal for that phase
- Sink rate
- ✔lists complete
- you had 7 hours of sleep last night and are just getting over a cold
- marginal weather
- 2° C, rain forecast
- boss needs to get to Cancun
- ¾ tanks should get us there with 50 minutes of fuel
- fuel trucks stuck in maintenance
- aircraft is fine mechanically
- 5 hour flight
- Weather: go or no go?
- go: thunderstorm approaches enroute
- no go: you’re fired!
- Enroute: continue or divert around?
- continue: bumpy ride, possibility of icing, but no damage
- divert: how’s that fuel doing?
- Things to keep in mind:
- people have schedules to meet
- weather is unpredictable