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Instrument Approaches

The student should be able to apply previous lessons about approach components to an instrument approach chart, and be prepared to fly an approach in the aircraft.

Elements

  • review approach concepts
    • tracking navaids
    • working with ATC
    • approach briefing
    • procedure turn
    • DME arc
    • holding
  • minimum altitudes: MDA & DA
  • visual maneuvering: straight-in & circling
  • missed approach
  • approach types
    • VOR, VOR/DME
    • LOC
    • ILS
    • GPS, GPS/LPV
    • NDB
  • approach techniques

Resources

Instructor actions

  • Briefly review and, if necessary, teach the combined elements of an instrument approach
  • As appropriate, discuss specific approach types and their characteristics
  • Illustrate techniques using Tim’s simulator
  • Review each system before moving on to the next
  • Evaluate student knowledge with questions emphasizing understanding rather than rote
    • Have the student solve multiple scenarios
  • Conclude with an oral quiz, identifying and correcting errors

Student actions

  • Arrive with completed homework assignment
  • Maintain active involvement by responding to questions and taking notes
  • Plot several different instrument approaches of the same type on the board, chair-flying their training aircraft through the procedure
  • Complete an oral quiz and demonstration of the concepts

Completion Standards

The lesson will be complete when the student can describe the procedures required to fly a given type of instrument approach with minimal instructor guidance.

Teaching outline

Review of approach concepts

Intercepting & tracking navigational aids

Interacting with ATC in the approach environment

Briefing the approach

Flying a procedure turn

Flying a DME arc

Visual maneuvering: straight-in & circling

Refer to visual maneuvering lesson plan

Holding

Minimum approach altitudes: MDA & DA

  • All approaches have some kind of minimum altitude
  • Precision approaches use a decision altitude, measured in MSL.
    • At the DA, the decision is made to land or begin the missed approach segment.
    • Also referred to as DH (decision height), measured AGL from the touchdown zone (TDZE).
  • Non-precision approaches have a minimum descent altitude, which is the absolute floor of the approach.
    • The MDA must be maintained until either a landing is possible (ceiling, visibility, and environment in sight), the missed approach point is reached, or any other time that a missed approach is begun.
    • MDAs, especially when circling, must be considered minimums only, not mandatory. Often current conditions or personal minimums dictate higher approach minimums.

Missed approach procedures

Instrument approach procedures

VOR, VOR/DME

LOC

ILS

GPS, GPS/LPV

NDB

approach techniques

The ILS is a precision approach, providing both lateral and vertical guidance down a predetermined flight path.