The student should be able to apply previous lessons about approach components to an instrument approach chart, and be prepared to fly an approach in the aircraft.
- review approach concepts
- tracking navaids
- working with ATC
- approach briefing
- procedure turn
- DME arc
- minimum altitudes: MDA & DA
- visual maneuvering: straight-in & circling
- missed approach
- approach types
- VOR, VOR/DME
- GPS, GPS/LPV
- approach techniques
- pen and paper; whiteboard and markers
- Instrument Flying Handbook and The Pilot’s Manual: Instrument Flying
- instrument procedure charts; preferably in both Jeppesen & government formats
- laptop with flight simulator and internet access
- Tim’s Navigation Simulator works with multiple technologies
- Selkirk IFR trainers
- AIM Chapter 1: Air Navigation
- Briefly review and, if necessary, teach the combined elements of an instrument approach
- As appropriate, discuss specific approach types and their characteristics
- Illustrate techniques using Tim’s simulator
- Review each system before moving on to the next
- Evaluate student knowledge with questions emphasizing understanding rather than rote
- Have the student solve multiple scenarios
- Conclude with an oral quiz, identifying and correcting errors
- Arrive with completed homework assignment
- Maintain active involvement by responding to questions and taking notes
- Plot several different instrument approaches of the same type on the board, chair-flying their training aircraft through the procedure
- Complete an oral quiz and demonstration of the concepts
The lesson will be complete when the student can describe the procedures required to fly a given type of instrument approach with minimal instructor guidance.
Review of approach concepts
Intercepting & tracking navigational aids
Interacting with ATC in the approach environment
Briefing the approach
Flying a procedure turn
Flying a DME arc
Visual maneuvering: straight-in & circling
Refer to visual maneuvering lesson plan
Minimum approach altitudes: MDA & DA
- All approaches have some kind of minimum altitude
- Precision approaches use a decision altitude, measured in MSL.
- At the DA, the decision is made to land or begin the missed approach segment.
- Also referred to as DH (decision height), measured AGL from the touchdown zone (TDZE).
- Non-precision approaches have a minimum descent altitude, which is the absolute floor of the approach.
- The MDA must be maintained until either a landing is possible (ceiling, visibility, and environment in sight), the missed approach point is reached, or any other time that a missed approach is begun.
- MDAs, especially when circling, must be considered minimums only, not mandatory. Often current conditions or personal minimums dictate higher approach minimums.