Steep turns

Develop the student’s knowledge of the aerodynamics, setup, and execution of steep turns to improve aircraft control and finesse. <header class=”lessonIntro”> <section class=”module”>


  • introduce the maneuver
  • aerodynamics
  • setup & execution

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  • model aircraft
  • whiteboard and markers
  • Airplane Flying Handbook
  • UND standardization manual

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Instructor actions

In a guided discussion, explain the aerodynamics, procedures, and execution for steep turns, using whiteboard illustrations and a model aircraft. </section> <section class=”module”>

Student actions

Read appropriate chapter and complete homework assignment prior to the briefing. Participate in the guided discussion. </section> </header>

Completion Standards

The student should be able to explain the aerodynamics, procedures, and execution for steep turns.

Teaching outline

  • aerodynamics
  • relationship between load factor and stall speed
  • maneuvering speed
  • increase in total lift (and therefore induced drag)
  • torque effect, especially rollout
  • overbanking tendency


  • setup: 1,500 ft dual, 2,000 ft solo
    • boost off, gas fullest, gear up, mix rich, prop 2400
    • outside reference on a cardinal reference
    • entry airspeed not more than VA (110 Arrow)
  • roll quickly into bank (45° ±10° p, 50° ±5° c)
    • verify against attitude indicator
    • set sight picture against horizon
    • bank should not exceed 60° (why?)
    • backpressure to maintain altitude added at 30°
    • opposite aileron required to counter overbanking tendency
    • coordination
    • power increase to hold altitude and airspeed
    • small pitch corrections, keeping the attitude indicator just above the horizon
  • divide attention, checking inside regularly for airspeed (± 10 c) and altitude (±100 ft)
    • higher load factor - avoidance of accelerated stalls
  • turn through 360° using outside reference
  • begin roll out approximately 25° before reference heading (± 10°)
    • power reduction
    • commercial, roll into identical steep turn opposite direction, avoiding altitude gain